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Loch nan Uamh Viaduct, Highlands, Scotland, UK 11.09.17 (SCOT 10)
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Image by Welsh photographs
Loch nan Uamh Viaduct, Highlands, Scotland, UK 11.09.17 (SCOT 10)

The Loch nan Uamh Viaduct is a railway viaduct that carries the West Highland Line.

The viaduct has eight concrete arches of 50 feet (15 m) span, four each side of a large central concrete pylon. The reason for this design is not known.
The viaduct crosses the Allt a’ Mhama, or Mama Burn, just before it flows into Loch nan Uamh, a sea loch to the north of the Ardnish peninsula.

Immediately to the north of the viaduct is a short tunnel.

In 1987, Professor Roland Paxton, from Heriot-Watt University, investigated the legend that a horse had fallen into a pier during construction of Glenfinnan Viaduct in 1898 or 1899. However, after inserting a fisheye camera into boreholes made into the only two piers large enough to accommodate a horse, no animal remains were found.

In 1997, on the basis of local hearsay, Paxton investigated Loch nan Uamh viaduct using the same method but found only rubble as well.

In 2001, he returned to Loch nan Uamh with the latest microwave scanning technology and found the remains of a horse and cart within the viaduct’s central pylon


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Infrared HDR Garden of the Gods Colorado Springs Colorado.
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Image by Brokentaco
IR HDR. IR converted Canon Rebel XTi. AEB +/-2 total of 3 exposures processed with Photomatix. Levels adjusted in PSE. I found some shots I did back in Sep 08 that I never processed. I have one similar to this one but slightly different angle and of course the processing has been refined since then.

High Dynamic Range (HDR)

High-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) is a high dynamic range (HDR) technique used in imaging and photography to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity than is possible with standard digital imaging or photographic techniques. The aim is to present a similar range of luminance to that experienced through the human visual system. The human eye, through adaptation of the iris and other methods, adjusts constantly to adapt to a broad range of luminance present in the environment. The brain continuously interprets this information so that a viewer can see in a wide range of light conditions.

HDR images can represent a greater range of luminance levels than can be achieved using more ‘traditional’ methods, such as many real-world scenes containing very bright, direct sunlight to extreme shade, or very faint nebulae. This is often achieved by capturing and then combining several different, narrower range, exposures of the same subject matter. Non-HDR cameras take photographs with a limited exposure range, referred to as LDR, resulting in the loss of detail in highlights or shadows.

The two primary types of HDR images are computer renderings and images resulting from merging multiple low-dynamic-range (LDR) or standard-dynamic-range (SDR) photographs. HDR images can also be acquired using special image sensors, such as an oversampled binary image sensor.

Due to the limitations of printing and display contrast, the extended luminosity range of an HDR image has to be compressed to be made visible. The method of rendering an HDR image to a standard monitor or printing device is called tone mapping. This method reduces the overall contrast of an HDR image to facilitate display on devices or printouts with lower dynamic range, and can be applied to produce images with preserved local contrast (or exaggerated for artistic effect).

In photography, dynamic range is measured in exposure value (EV) differences (known as stops). An increase of one EV, or ‘one stop’, represents a doubling of the amount of light. Conversely, a decrease of one EV represents a halving of the amount of light. Therefore, revealing detail in the darkest of shadows requires high exposures, while preserving detail in very bright situations requires very low exposures. Most cameras cannot provide this range of exposure values within a single exposure, due to their low dynamic range. High-dynamic-range photographs are generally achieved by capturing multiple standard-exposure images, often using exposure bracketing, and then later merging them into a single HDR image, usually within a photo manipulation program). Digital images are often encoded in a camera’s raw image format, because 8-bit JPEG encoding does not offer a wide enough range of values to allow fine transitions (and regarding HDR, later introduces undesirable effects due to lossy compression).

Any camera that allows manual exposure control can make images for HDR work, although one equipped with auto exposure bracketing (AEB) is far better suited. Images from film cameras are less suitable as they often must first be digitized, so that they can later be processed using software HDR methods.

In most imaging devices, the degree of exposure to light applied to the active element (be it film or CCD) can be altered in one of two ways: by either increasing/decreasing the size of the aperture or by increasing/decreasing the time of each exposure. Exposure variation in an HDR set is only done by altering the exposure time and not the aperture size; this is because altering the aperture size also affects the depth of field and so the resultant multiple images would be quite different, preventing their final combination into a single HDR image.

An important limitation for HDR photography is that any movement between successive images will impede or prevent success in combining them afterwards. Also, as one must create several images (often three or five and sometimes more) to obtain the desired luminance range, such a full ‘set’ of images takes extra time. HDR photographers have developed calculation methods and techniques to partially overcome these problems, but the use of a sturdy tripod is, at least, advised.

Some cameras have an auto exposure bracketing (AEB) feature with a far greater dynamic range than others, from the 3 EV of the Canon EOS 40D, to the 18 EV of the Canon EOS-1D Mark II. As the popularity of this imaging method grows, several camera manufactures are now offering built-in HDR features. For example, the Pentax K-7 DSLR has an HDR mode that captures an HDR image and outputs (only) a tone mapped JPEG file. The Canon PowerShot G12, Canon PowerShot S95 and Canon PowerShot S100 offer similar features in a smaller format.. Nikon’s approach is called ‘Active D-Lighting’ which applies exposure compensation and tone mapping to the image as it comes from the sensor, with the accent being on retaing a realistic effect . Some smartphones provide HDR modes, and most mobile platforms have apps that provide HDR picture taking.

Camera characteristics such as gamma curves, sensor resolution, noise, photometric calibration and color calibration affect resulting high-dynamic-range images.

Color film negatives and slides consist of multiple film layers that respond to light differently. As a consequence, transparent originals (especially positive slides) feature a very high dynamic range

Tone mapping
Tone mapping reduces the dynamic range, or contrast ratio, of an entire image while retaining localized contrast. Although it is a distinct operation, tone mapping is often applied to HDRI files by the same software package.

Several software applications are available on the PC, Mac and Linux platforms for producing HDR files and tone mapped images. Notable titles include

Adobe Photoshop
Aurora HDR
Dynamic Photo HDR
HDR Efex Pro
HDR PhotoStudio
Luminance HDR
Oloneo PhotoEngine
Photomatix Pro

Information stored in high-dynamic-range images typically corresponds to the physical values of luminance or radiance that can be observed in the real world. This is different from traditional digital images, which represent colors as they should appear on a monitor or a paper print. Therefore, HDR image formats are often called scene-referred, in contrast to traditional digital images, which are device-referred or output-referred. Furthermore, traditional images are usually encoded for the human visual system (maximizing the visual information stored in the fixed number of bits), which is usually called gamma encoding or gamma correction. The values stored for HDR images are often gamma compressed (power law) or logarithmically encoded, or floating-point linear values, since fixed-point linear encodings are increasingly inefficient over higher dynamic ranges.

HDR images often don’t use fixed ranges per color channel—other than traditional images—to represent many more colors over a much wider dynamic range. For that purpose, they don’t use integer values to represent the single color channels (e.g., 0-255 in an 8 bit per pixel interval for red, green and blue) but instead use a floating point representation. Common are 16-bit (half precision) or 32-bit floating point numbers to represent HDR pixels. However, when the appropriate transfer function is used, HDR pixels for some applications can be represented with a color depth that has as few as 10–12 bits for luminance and 8 bits for chrominance without introducing any visible quantization artifacts.

History of HDR photography
The idea of using several exposures to adequately reproduce a too-extreme range of luminance was pioneered as early as the 1850s by Gustave Le Gray to render seascapes showing both the sky and the sea. Such rendering was impossible at the time using standard methods, as the luminosity range was too extreme. Le Gray used one negative for the sky, and another one with a longer exposure for the sea, and combined the two into one picture in positive.

Mid 20th century
Manual tone mapping was accomplished by dodging and burning – selectively increasing or decreasing the exposure of regions of the photograph to yield better tonality reproduction. This was effective because the dynamic range of the negative is significantly higher than would be available on the finished positive paper print when that is exposed via the negative in a uniform manner. An excellent example is the photograph Schweitzer at the Lamp by W. Eugene Smith, from his 1954 photo essay A Man of Mercy on Dr. Albert Schweitzer and his humanitarian work in French Equatorial Africa. The image took 5 days to reproduce the tonal range of the scene, which ranges from a bright lamp (relative to the scene) to a dark shadow.

Ansel Adams elevated dodging and burning to an art form. Many of his famous prints were manipulated in the darkroom with these two methods. Adams wrote a comprehensive book on producing prints called The Print, which prominently features dodging and burning, in the context of his Zone System.

With the advent of color photography, tone mapping in the darkroom was no longer possible due to the specific timing needed during the developing process of color film. Photographers looked to film manufacturers to design new film stocks with improved response, or continued to shoot in black and white to use tone mapping methods.

Color film capable of directly recording high-dynamic-range images was developed by Charles Wyckoff and EG&G "in the course of a contract with the Department of the Air Force". This XR film had three emulsion layers, an upper layer having an ASA speed rating of 400, a middle layer with an intermediate rating, and a lower layer with an ASA rating of 0.004. The film was processed in a manner similar to color films, and each layer produced a different color. The dynamic range of this extended range film has been estimated as 1:108. It has been used to photograph nuclear explosions, for astronomical photography, for spectrographic research, and for medical imaging. Wyckoff’s detailed pictures of nuclear explosions appeared on the cover of Life magazine in the mid-1950s.

Late 20th century
Georges Cornuéjols and licensees of his patents (Brdi, Hymatom) introduced the principle of HDR video image, in 1986, by interposing a matricial LCD screen in front of the camera’s image sensor, increasing the sensors dynamic by five stops. The concept of neighborhood tone mapping was applied to video cameras by a group from the Technion in Israel led by Dr. Oliver Hilsenrath and Prof. Y.Y.Zeevi who filed for a patent on this concept in 1988.

In February and April 1990, Georges Cornuéjols introduced the first real-time HDR camera that combined two images captured by a sensor3435 or simultaneously3637 by two sensors of the camera. This process is known as bracketing used for a video stream.

In 1991, the first commercial video camera was introduced that performed real-time capturing of multiple images with different exposures, and producing an HDR video image, by Hymatom, licensee of Georges Cornuéjols.

Also in 1991, Georges Cornuéjols introduced the HDR+ image principle by non-linear accumulation of images to increase the sensitivity of the camera: for low-light environments, several successive images are accumulated, thus increasing the signal to noise ratio.

In 1993, another commercial medical camera producing an HDR video image, by the Technion.

Modern HDR imaging uses a completely different approach, based on making a high-dynamic-range luminance or light map using only global image operations (across the entire image), and then tone mapping the result. Global HDR was first introduced in 19931 resulting in a mathematical theory of differently exposed pictures of the same subject matter that was published in 1995 by Steve Mann and Rosalind Picard.

On October 28, 1998, Ben Sarao created one of the first nighttime HDR+G (High Dynamic Range + Graphic image)of STS-95 on the launch pad at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. It consisted of four film images of the shuttle at night that were digitally composited with additional digital graphic elements. The image was first exhibited at NASA Headquarters Great Hall, Washington DC in 1999 and then published in Hasselblad Forum, Issue 3 1993, Volume 35 ISSN 0282-5449.

The advent of consumer digital cameras produced a new demand for HDR imaging to improve the light response of digital camera sensors, which had a much smaller dynamic range than film. Steve Mann developed and patented the global-HDR method for producing digital images having extended dynamic range at the MIT Media Laboratory. Mann’s method involved a two-step procedure: (1) generate one floating point image array by global-only image operations (operations that affect all pixels identically, without regard to their local neighborhoods); and then (2) convert this image array, using local neighborhood processing (tone-remapping, etc.), into an HDR image. The image array generated by the first step of Mann’s process is called a lightspace image, lightspace picture, or radiance map. Another benefit of global-HDR imaging is that it provides access to the intermediate light or radiance map, which has been used for computer vision, and other image processing operations.

21st century
In 2005, Adobe Systems introduced several new features in Photoshop CS2 including Merge to HDR, 32 bit floating point image support, and HDR tone mapping.

On June 30, 2016, Microsoft added support for the digital compositing of HDR images to Windows 10 using the Universal Windows Platform.

HDR sensors
Modern CMOS image sensors can often capture a high dynamic range from a single exposure. The wide dynamic range of the captured image is non-linearly compressed into a smaller dynamic range electronic representation. However, with proper processing, the information from a single exposure can be used to create an HDR image.

Such HDR imaging is used in extreme dynamic range applications like welding or automotive work. Some other cameras designed for use in security applications can automatically provide two or more images for each frame, with changing exposure. For example, a sensor for 30fps video will give out 60fps with the odd frames at a short exposure time and the even frames at a longer exposure time. Some of the sensor may even combine the two images on-chip so that a wider dynamic range without in-pixel compression is directly available to the user for display or processing.

Infrared Photography

In infrared photography, the film or image sensor used is sensitive to infrared light. The part of the spectrum used is referred to as near-infrared to distinguish it from far-infrared, which is the domain of thermal imaging. Wavelengths used for photography range from about 700 nm to about 900 nm. Film is usually sensitive to visible light too, so an infrared-passing filter is used; this lets infrared (IR) light pass through to the camera, but blocks all or most of the visible light spectrum (the filter thus looks black or deep red). ("Infrared filter" may refer either to this type of filter or to one that blocks infrared but passes other wavelengths.)

When these filters are used together with infrared-sensitive film or sensors, "in-camera effects" can be obtained; false-color or black-and-white images with a dreamlike or sometimes lurid appearance known as the "Wood Effect," an effect mainly caused by foliage (such as tree leaves and grass) strongly reflecting in the same way visible light is reflected from snow. There is a small contribution from chlorophyll fluorescence, but this is marginal and is not the real cause of the brightness seen in infrared photographs. The effect is named after the infrared photography pioneer Robert W. Wood, and not after the material wood, which does not strongly reflect infrared.

The other attributes of infrared photographs include very dark skies and penetration of atmospheric haze, caused by reduced Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering, respectively, compared to visible light. The dark skies, in turn, result in less infrared light in shadows and dark reflections of those skies from water, and clouds will stand out strongly. These wavelengths also penetrate a few millimeters into skin and give a milky look to portraits, although eyes often look black.

Until the early 20th century, infrared photography was not possible because silver halide emulsions are not sensitive to longer wavelengths than that of blue light (and to a lesser extent, green light) without the addition of a dye to act as a color sensitizer. The first infrared photographs (as distinct from spectrographs) to be published appeared in the February 1910 edition of The Century Magazine and in the October 1910 edition of the Royal Photographic Society Journal to illustrate papers by Robert W. Wood, who discovered the unusual effects that now bear his name. The RPS co-ordinated events to celebrate the centenary of this event in 2010. Wood’s photographs were taken on experimental film that required very long exposures; thus, most of his work focused on landscapes. A further set of infrared landscapes taken by Wood in Italy in 1911 used plates provided for him by CEK Mees at Wratten & Wainwright. Mees also took a few infrared photographs in Portugal in 1910, which are now in the Kodak archives.

Infrared-sensitive photographic plates were developed in the United States during World War I for spectroscopic analysis, and infrared sensitizing dyes were investigated for improved haze penetration in aerial photography. After 1930, new emulsions from Kodak and other manufacturers became useful to infrared astronomy.

Infrared photography became popular with photography enthusiasts in the 1930s when suitable film was introduced commercially. The Times regularly published landscape and aerial photographs taken by their staff photographers using Ilford infrared film. By 1937 33 kinds of infrared film were available from five manufacturers including Agfa, Kodak and Ilford. Infrared movie film was also available and was used to create day-for-night effects in motion pictures, a notable example being the pseudo-night aerial sequences in the James Cagney/Bette Davis movie The Bride Came COD.

False-color infrared photography became widely practiced with the introduction of Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero Film and Ektachrome Infrared EIR. The first version of this, known as Kodacolor Aero-Reversal-Film, was developed by Clark and others at the Kodak for camouflage detection in the 1940s. The film became more widely available in 35mm form in the 1960s but KODAK AEROCHROME III Infrared Film 1443 has been discontinued.

Infrared photography became popular with a number of 1960s recording artists, because of the unusual results; Jimi Hendrix, Donovan, Frank and a slow shutter speed without focus compensation, however wider apertures like f/2.0 can produce sharp photos only if the lens is meticulously refocused to the infrared index mark, and only if this index mark is the correct one for the filter and film in use. However, it should be noted that diffraction effects inside a camera are greater at infrared wavelengths so that stopping down the lens too far may actually reduce sharpness.

Most apochromatic (‘APO’) lenses do not have an Infrared index mark and do not need to be refocused for the infrared spectrum because they are already optically corrected into the near-infrared spectrum. Catadioptric lenses do not often require this adjustment because their mirror containing elements do not suffer from chromatic aberration and so the overall aberration is comparably less. Catadioptric lenses do, of course, still contain lenses, and these lenses do still have a dispersive property.

Infrared black-and-white films require special development times but development is usually achieved with standard black-and-white film developers and chemicals (like D-76). Kodak HIE film has a polyester film base that is very stable but extremely easy to scratch, therefore special care must be used in the handling of Kodak HIE throughout the development and printing/scanning process to avoid damage to the film. The Kodak HIE film was sensitive to 900 nm.

As of November 2, 2007, "KODAK is preannouncing the discontinuance" of HIE Infrared 35 mm film stating the reasons that, "Demand for these products has been declining significantly in recent years, and it is no longer practical to continue to manufacture given the low volume, the age of the product formulations and the complexity of the processes involved." At the time of this notice, HIE Infrared 135-36 was available at a street price of around .00 a roll at US mail order outlets.

Arguably the greatest obstacle to infrared film photography has been the increasing difficulty of obtaining infrared-sensitive film. However, despite the discontinuance of HIE, other newer infrared sensitive emulsions from EFKE, ROLLEI, and ILFORD are still available, but these formulations have differing sensitivity and specifications from the venerable KODAK HIE that has been around for at least two decades. Some of these infrared films are available in 120 and larger formats as well as 35 mm, which adds flexibility to their application. With the discontinuance of Kodak HIE, Efke’s IR820 film has become the only IR film on the marketneeds update with good sensitivity beyond 750 nm, the Rollei film does extend beyond 750 nm but IR sensitivity falls off very rapidly.

Color infrared transparency films have three sensitized layers that, because of the way the dyes are coupled to these layers, reproduce infrared as red, red as green, and green as blue. All three layers are sensitive to blue so the film must be used with a yellow filter, since this will block blue light but allow the remaining colors to reach the film. The health of foliage can be determined from the relative strengths of green and infrared light reflected; this shows in color infrared as a shift from red (healthy) towards magenta (unhealthy). Early color infrared films were developed in the older E-4 process, but Kodak later manufactured a color transparency film that could be developed in standard E-6 chemistry, although more accurate results were obtained by developing using the AR-5 process. In general, color infrared does not need to be refocused to the infrared index mark on the lens.

In 2007 Kodak announced that production of the 35 mm version of their color infrared film (Ektachrome Professional Infrared/EIR) would cease as there was insufficient demand. Since 2011, all formats of color infrared film have been discontinued. Specifically, Aerochrome 1443 and SO-734.

There is no currently available digital camera that will produce the same results as Kodak color infrared film although the equivalent images can be produced by taking two exposures, one infrared and the other full-color, and combining in post-production. The color images produced by digital still cameras using infrared-pass filters are not equivalent to those produced on color infrared film. The colors result from varying amounts of infrared passing through the color filters on the photo sites, further amended by the Bayer filtering. While this makes such images unsuitable for the kind of applications for which the film was used, such as remote sensing of plant health, the resulting color tonality has proved popular artistically.

Color digital infrared, as part of full spectrum photography is gaining popularity. The ease of creating a softly colored photo with infrared characteristics has found interest among hobbyists and professionals.

In 2008, Los Angeles photographer, Dean Bennici started cutting and hand rolling Aerochrome color Infrared film. All Aerochrome medium and large format which exists today came directly from his lab. The trend in infrared photography continues to gain momentum with the success of photographer Richard Mosse and multiple users all around the world.

Digital camera sensors are inherently sensitive to infrared light, which would interfere with the normal photography by confusing the autofocus calculations or softening the image (because infrared light is focused differently from visible light), or oversaturating the red channel. Also, some clothing is transparent in the infrared, leading to unintended (at least to the manufacturer) uses of video cameras. Thus, to improve image quality and protect privacy, many digital cameras employ infrared blockers. Depending on the subject matter, infrared photography may not be practical with these cameras because the exposure times become overly long, often in the range of 30 seconds, creating noise and motion blur in the final image. However, for some subject matter the long exposure does not matter or the motion blur effects actually add to the image. Some lenses will also show a ‘hot spot’ in the centre of the image as their coatings are optimised for visible light and not for IR.

An alternative method of DSLR infrared photography is to remove the infrared blocker in front of the sensor and replace it with a filter that removes visible light. This filter is behind the mirror, so the camera can be used normally – handheld, normal shutter speeds, normal composition through the viewfinder, and focus, all work like a normal camera. Metering works but is not always accurate because of the difference between visible and infrared refraction. When the IR blocker is removed, many lenses which did display a hotspot cease to do so, and become perfectly usable for infrared photography. Additionally, because the red, green and blue micro-filters remain and have transmissions not only in their respective color but also in the infrared, enhanced infrared color may be recorded.

Since the Bayer filters in most digital cameras absorb a significant fraction of the infrared light, these cameras are sometimes not very sensitive as infrared cameras and can sometimes produce false colors in the images. An alternative approach is to use a Foveon X3 sensor, which does not have absorptive filters on it; the Sigma SD10 DSLR has a removable IR blocking filter and dust protector, which can be simply omitted or replaced by a deep red or complete visible light blocking filter. The Sigma SD14 has an IR/UV blocking filter that can be removed/installed without tools. The result is a very sensitive digital IR camera.

While it is common to use a filter that blocks almost all visible light, the wavelength sensitivity of a digital camera without internal infrared blocking is such that a variety of artistic results can be obtained with more conventional filtration. For example, a very dark neutral density filter can be used (such as the Hoya ND400) which passes a very small amount of visible light compared to the near-infrared it allows through. Wider filtration permits an SLR viewfinder to be used and also passes more varied color information to the sensor without necessarily reducing the Wood effect. Wider filtration is however likely to reduce other infrared artefacts such as haze penetration and darkened skies. This technique mirrors the methods used by infrared film photographers where black-and-white infrared film was often used with a deep red filter rather than a visually opaque one.

Another common technique with near-infrared filters is to swap blue and red channels in software (e.g. photoshop) which retains much of the characteristic ‘white foliage’ while rendering skies a glorious blue.

Several Sony cameras had the so-called Night Shot facility, which physically moves the blocking filter away from the light path, which makes the cameras very sensitive to infrared light. Soon after its development, this facility was ‘restricted’ by Sony to make it difficult for people to take photos that saw through clothing. To do this the iris is opened fully and exposure duration is limited to long times of more than 1/30 second or so. It is possible to shoot infrared but neutral density filters must be used to reduce the camera’s sensitivity and the long exposure times mean that care must be taken to avoid camera-shake artifacts.

Fuji have produced digital cameras for use in forensic criminology and medicine which have no infrared blocking filter. The first camera, designated the S3 PRO UVIR, also had extended ultraviolet sensitivity (digital sensors are usually less sensitive to UV than to IR). Optimum UV sensitivity requires special lenses, but ordinary lenses usually work well for IR. In 2007, FujiFilm introduced a new version of this camera, based on the Nikon D200/ FujiFilm S5 called the IS Pro, also able to take Nikon lenses. Fuji had earlier introduced a non-SLR infrared camera, the IS-1, a modified version of the FujiFilm FinePix S9100. Unlike the S3 PRO UVIR, the IS-1 does not offer UV sensitivity. FujiFilm restricts the sale of these cameras to professional users with their EULA specifically prohibiting "unethical photographic conduct".

Phase One digital camera backs can be ordered in an infrared modified form.

Remote sensing and thermographic cameras are sensitive to longer wavelengths of infrared (see Infrared spectrum#Commonly used sub-division scheme). They may be multispectral and use a variety of technologies which may not resemble common camera or filter designs. Cameras sensitive to longer infrared wavelengths including those used in infrared astronomy often require cooling to reduce thermally induced dark currents in the sensor (see Dark current (physics)). Lower cost uncooled thermographic digital cameras operate in the Long Wave infrared band (see Thermographic camera#Uncooled infrared detectors). These cameras are generally used for building inspection or preventative maintenance but can be used for artistic pursuits as well.

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67_I shall never forget the oft repeated prayer
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Image by Jim Surkamp

Hamilton Hatter Part 2 – Books Are The Holy Road TRT: 25:43s

Read script with matching images –

(music) Mother of limestone fountains! My heart goes back with the setting sun — My heart, my heart is in the Mountains!

2_The “Most Excellent” Hamilton Hatter
The “Most Excellent” Hamilton Hatter (1856-1942) Part 2 (music) Once enslaved near Charlestown, Virginia,

3_seizes opportunities to learn and overcome
Hamilton Hatter seizes opportunities to learn and overcome. At one college he builds young minds and even its buildings –

4_then launches another college in his beloved West Virginia
then launches another college in his beloved West Virginia again – building minds – and buildings. But first he had to overcome. (music)

5_and I can rejoice now in the belief that THE SCHOOL WILL GO ON
"and I can rejoice now in the belief that THE SCHOOL WILL GO ON!”

6_The children were of both sexes, ranging from three to twenty years of age
The children were of both sexes, ranging from three to twenty years of age, neatly and comfortably clad, well fed, healthy, and cheerful,

7_intelligent countenances
with an uncommon array of agreeable and intelligent countenances peering over the tops of the desks.

8_Northern journalist John Trowbridge came to Charlestown
Northern journalist John Trowbridge came to Charlestown in the early summer of 1865, a war-worn town

9_with its ruins and seething
with its ruins and seething and six months before Hatter’s school was opened there.

10_Trowbridge arrived at Charlestown
Trowbridge arrived at Charlestown in about May, 1865 expecting nothing in particular.

11_At the end of a long hour’s ride
At the end of a long hour’s ride, we arrived at Charles Town, chiefly of interest to me as the place of John Brown’s martyrdom.

12_on the edge of boundless unfenced fields
We alighted from the train on the edge of boundless unfenced fields, into whose melancholy solitudes the desolate streets emptied themselves – rivers to that ocean of weeds. The town resembled to my eye some unprotected female sitting,

13_sorrowfully on the wayside
sorrowfully on the wayside, in tattered and faded apparel, with unkempt tresses fallen negligently about features which might once have been attractive.

14_On the steps of a boarding house
On the steps of a boarding house I found an acquaintance whose countenance gleamed with pleasure

15_“at sight,” as he said, “of a single loyal face
“at sight,” as he said, “of a single loyal face in that nest of secession.” He had been two or three days in the place waiting for luggage which had been miscarried.

16_the sentiment toward secession throughout the County before the Civil War varied widely
While Jefferson County, West Virginia is still small, the sentiment toward secession throughout the County before the Civil War varied widely, with the hotbed of secessionist sentiment in the area around Charlestown and adjacent large farms.

17_“They are all Rebels here – all rebels!”
“They are all Rebels here – all rebels!” he exclaimed as he took his cane and walked with me. “They are a pitiable poverty-stricken set, there is no money in the place, and scarcely anything to eat.

18_We have for breakfast salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason
We have for breakfast salt-fish, fried potatoes and treason. Fried potatoes, treason, and salt-fish for dinner. At supper, the fare is slightly varied, and we have treason, salt-fish potatoes, and a little more treason.

19_My landlady’ s daughter is Southern fire incarnate
My landlady’ s daughter is Southern fire incarnate; and she illustrates Southern politeness by abusing Northern people and the government from morning ‘till night, for my especial edification. Sometimes I venture to answer her, when she flies at me, figuratively speaking, like a cat. The women are not the only out-spoken Rebels, although they are the worst.

20_The men don’t hesitate to declare their sentiments
The men don’t hesitate to declare their sentiments, in season and out of season.” My friend concluded with this figure:

21_The war feeling here is like a burning bush with a wet blanket
“The war feeling here is like a burning bush with a wet blanket wrapped around it. Looked at from the outside, the fire seems quenched. But just peep under the blanket and there it is, all alive and eating, eating in. The wet blanket is the present government policy; and every act of conciliation shown the Rebels is just letting in so much air to feed the fire.”

22_The day Hamilton was born
The day Hamilton was born in April, 1856,

23_36-year-old Frank Hatter appears to be working
his father 36-year-old Frank Hatter appears to be working one of Washington family homesteads in the County and

24_his mother 30-year-old Rebecca McCord was working
best evidence indicates his mother 30-year-old Rebecca McCord was working with the family Edward and Anne Aisquith, at their Charles Town home at Liberty and East (today Seminary) Streets.

25_or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, who lived in Kabletown, and being neighbors of the large landowner there, Logan Osburn.
It’s not clear whether Hamilton, his brother George (who was born in 1853) and his sister Charlotte (born in 1858) lived with their parents or with Rebecca’s parents, William and Maria McCord, who lived in Kabletown, and being neighbors of the large landowner there, Logan Osburn.

26_School is the Holy Road
School is the Holy Road Overcoming in Hamilton Hatter’s Charlestown, Va. – 1865-1868

27_Once the Free Will Baptist Home Mission Society established a school
Once the Free Will Baptist Home Mission Society established a school to teach those now freed,

28_Hamilton each day would walk to the school
Hamilton each day would walk to the school in Charles Town for freed African-Americans where

29_he would commit the revolutionary act
he would commit the revolutionary act of learning to read, write and think critically,

30_setting his footsteps on the long, hard but enthralling roa
setting his footsteps on the long, hard but enthralling road to high scholarship and achievement.

31_Anne S. Dudley, was one of several young women
December, 1865 – Anne S. Dudley, was one of several young women coming from Maine borne by their Free Will Baptist faith to start Mission Schools in places like Charlestown.

32_They were determined to free the minds
They were determined to free the minds of just freed African-Americans –

33_and in 1860 27 per cent of the County’s residents were enslaved persons
and in 1860 27 per cent of the County’s residents were enslaved persons. Many had gone during the war. Dudley, also a graduate of Maine Seminary in 1864,

34_and two other teachers
and two other teachers who would teach at Charlestown

35_came down by ship and train
came down by ship and train,

36_likely with with Baptist religious tracts.
likely with with Baptist religious tracts.

37_Miss Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith
Miss Phebe Libby and Mrs. M. W. Smith would teach in the Charlestown Mission school too.

38_Dudley wrote Silas Curtis December 23, 1865
Dudley wrote Silas Curtis December 23, 1865 from Harpers Ferry, about eight miles from Charles Town: “I am going to Charlestown to open a school there next week.

39_The spirit that hung John Brown still lives
The spirit that hung John Brown still lives, and the people are strongly opposed to schools for the Freedman there, as well as here.

40_I go alone
I go alone, but I trust the law and the Lord will shield me.”

41_townspeople at best were OK with teaching
More exactly the townspeople at best were OK with teaching

42_but having refined women in public association
those once enslaved, but having refined women in public association with those they once had enslaved breeched a hackneyed assumption.

43_lady of the town to associate with such a woman such as Miss Dudley
And for a lady of the town to associate with such a woman such as Miss Dudley from elsewhere – worse still from a Yankee state – would be a social suicide in Charlestown.

44_Dudley wrote: “I could get no permanent boarding place for nearly two months”
Dudley wrote: “I could get no permanent boarding place for nearly two months (for it would have been a lifelong disgrace to board Yankee teachers and the

45_there could be no return to friends and society
Rubicon once passed, there could be no return to friends and society, no more than over the hills of caste in India, as public sentiment was then)

46_so I was there alone
so I was there alone, boarding myself and teaching day and night,

47_until I had 150 scholars of all ages and complexions”
until I had 150 scholars of all ages and complexions” teaching the rudiments of reading to all “from white to black,

48_and of all ages
and of all ages, from four to fifty-five years.” For this shunning, Dudley could only find board and a school room all

49_freed African American blacksmith
under the single roof of freed African American blacksmith Achilles Dixon and his wife.

50_southeast corner of Samuel and Liberty streets
It was located on the southeast corner of Samuel and Liberty streets.

51_The Freedmen’s Bureau
The Freedmen’s Bureau – officially the Bureau of Refugees, Freedman, and Abandoned Lands – helped. First organized in July, 1865, – a month after Trowbridge’s visit –

52_crucial role enforcing the rights
the Bureau extended its jurisdiction to the Eastern Panhandle seeing the need and played a crucial role enforcing the rights of the

53_when the West Virginia state government was unable
newly freed and their teachers at a time when the West Virginia state government was unable to do so, especially in Jefferson County.

54_the Bureau paid Miss Dudley’s rent
In fact, the Bureau paid Miss Dudley’s rent so she could have a school room, albeit only fifteen square feet. After being confronted with a mob, the troops with the Freedmen’s Bureau gave her an escort.

55_Nights, she slept with “a good axe and six-shooter”
Nights, she slept with “a good axe and six-shooter at the head of my bed at night,

56_resolved to sell my life as dearly as possible – if need be
resolved to sell my life as dearly as possible – if need be.”

57_to replace the ground-breaking Dudley with two teachers
Overwhelmed by work that prompted the Home Mission Society to replace the ground-breaking Dudley with two teachers instead of one in the spring of 1866, Dudley had written that February:

58_No one can ever know the anxiety I have felt
“No one can ever know the anxiety I have felt, and the effort I have had to make these two long months, since I came here, occupying a rough log house, cold as a barn, teaching and boarding in the same rooms because I could not get board elsewhere, sleeping there with no man or boy in the house for single night, while the enemies of the school were threatening without, and not knowing what the next hour might bring; hearing a hundred different scholars recite lessons in a single day. doing my own work, receiving company, writing letters, etc. etc. and I can rejoice now in the belief that IT WILL GO ON!”

59_Every day coming through the little door
Every day coming through the little door was her fondest hope.

60_Strother described them
Strother described them: The room is always full to overflowing.

61_reduced one-half owing to the necessity
In summer the attendance is reduced one-half owing to the necessity of the older pupils going on to service,

62_remunerative labor of some sort
or engaging in remunerative labor of some sort.

63_comfortably clad, well fed, healthy, and cheerful
The children were of both sexes, neatly and comfortably clad, well fed, healthy, and cheerful, with an uncommon array of agreeable and intelligent countenances peering over the tops of the desks. They were also remarkably docile, orderly, and well mannered,

64_rudeness pertaining to the street-corner brat
without a trace of the barbaric squalor and rudeness pertaining to the street-corner brat of former days, occasionally found nowadays among those who didn’t go to school.

He goes on:

65_since the Emancipation Proclamation
While the majority of the pupils have come into existence since the Emancipation Proclamation, there is still a number older than that event, and some whose recollections antedate the great war. Yet in their career of schooling they have all started even.

66_It may also be observed that the great scholars are usually outstripped by the little ones
It may also be observed that the great scholars are usually outstripped by the little ones, which only goes to confirm the generally received opinion that young plants are more easily transplanted and trained than older ones more absolutely true in mind and morals than in horticulture.

67_I shall never forget the oft repeated prayer
Dudley wrote to "The Morning Star," the Free Will Baptist publication: All the colored people manifested the greatest kindness towards us. I shall never forget the oft repeated prayer: “O, Lord, bless the teacher that comes a far distance to teach us. Front and fight her battles and bring her safe home to Glory, if you please Jesus.”

The focus shifted to having a permanent school building. State law, due to amendments in 1865, segregated students by race. State law by 1867, also required moving the task of providing education to African Americans

68_from the mission schools to the local school board.
from the mission schools to the local school board. But before a reorganization removed the Freedman’s Bureau altogether from Jefferson County in October, 1868,

69_the new school, providing some 20,000 bricks and cash for materials
Bureau leadership prodded the Charlestown’s school board to building the new school, providing some 20,000 bricks and cash for materials to match revenues the township school board was to collect to build the permanent school for its African Americans. The school under new management opened in time for the fall session in 1868.

70_The Freedmen Bureau men also engineered a suit. It led to a decision by Unionist-leaning Judge Ephraim B. Hall in the Tenth District of the circuit court reaffirming the right to an education for African Americans in that circuit. The ruling was then circulated and became becoming a de facto policy throughout the state.

71_Another teacher (Sarah Jane Foster) wrote in her diary: “And here, I must confess that the teachers at Charlestown and Shepherdstown vehemently assert that the colored people of their charges will compare favorably with any. Appearances at Charlestown indicate as much.”

72_Wrote Strother how the School Board finally came around
Wrote Strother how the School Board finally came around, tossing their low expectations: The County Commission of Examiners report most favorably of the general intelligence exhibited by the colored pupils, and of their progress in all the elementary branches of common-school education.

73_One of the bright faces in the classroom
One of the bright faces in the classroom to benefit was the inquisitive Hamilton Hatter, who saw

74_his world opening
his world opening and vast through reading, it was the road to his future.

Main Credits:

With generous, community-minded support from American Public University System. (The sentiments in this production do not in any way reflect modern-day policies of APUS). More at

Researched, Written, Produced, Narrated – Jim Surkamp

"My Heart is in the Mountains" from Lantern in a Poet’s Garden, Poem by Daniel Bedinger Lucas (public domain) Music by Terry Tucker, c (the copyright symbol) 2010, GHF Music, (

Cam Millar – Tumble Blue 2, Waterdogs 1 (

Shana Aisenberg – twelve-string guitar, banjo copyright Shana Aisenberg. (

Sound FX:
children playing, hand bell, crickets – from “free”


Burke, Dawne R. (2006). “An American Phoenix: A History of Storer College from Slavery to Desegregation,” Pittsburgh, PA: Geyer Printing House.

Crayon, Porte. (Strother, David H.) “Our Negro Schools” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, New York, NY: Harper and Bros. Volume 49 Issue 292 (September, 1874).

Lucas, Daniel B. (1913). “The land where we were dreaming, and other poems of Daniel Bedinger Lucas.” Kent, Charles William, joint ed. Boston MA.: The Gorham Press.

“Sarah Jane Foster: Teacher of the Freedman, The Diary and Letters of a Maine Woman in the South After the Civil War,” Picton Press: Rockport, ME., 2001, Wayne E. Reilly editor.

Stealey, John E. “The Freedmen’s Bureau in West Virginia.” West Virginia History 39 (Jan/April 1978): 99-142.

Taylor, James L. “A History of Black Education in Jefferson County, West Virginia, 1866-1966.”

Trowbridge, John T. (1866). “The South: a tour of its battlefields and ruined cities, a journey through the desolated states, and talks with the people: being a description of the present state of the country – its agriculture – railroads – business and finances.” Hartford, Conn., L. Stebbins.

Latest Wiki Platforms News

Looks like a flying saucer is about to land at a glimpse…
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Image by williamcho
The EXPO MRT Station located next to the Singapore EXPO has a dome-shaped ceiling that looks much like a giant flying saucer.

Shot with Reggie for company.

Thanks to Hock How & Siew Peng for the correction on location. You are very sharp. Cheers!

Latest Learning Management Systems News

University of Maryland and Sourcefire Announce New Cybersecurity Partnership
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Image by Merrill College of Journalism Press Releases
Photo: Courtesy

Maryland Cybersecurity Center now partnering with 14 companies and institutions

COLLEGE PARK, Md. and COLUMBIA, Md. — The University of Maryland and Sourcefire, Inc. today announced a new partnership to establish collaborative activities in cybersecurity.

The partnership will promote cybersecurity education, research and student engagement through the Maryland Cybersecurity Center (MC2). MC2 and Sourcefire will leverage each others resources, expertise, and unique perspectives to develop innovative cybersecurity expertise, educational opportunities and research-driven solutions to cybersecurity challenges.

"We are extremely excited to develop this new partnership with Sourcefire," said Michael Hicks, director of MC2 and associate professor of computer science. "Sourcefire is a unique and impressive company that can both meet the security demands of today and perform the cutting edge research to attack the growing problems of tomorrow. We look forward to partnering together to forge innovative, game-changing solutions."

MC2 is forging alliances and partnerships between academia, industry and government to deliver advanced educational programs designed to prepare the cybersecurity workforce of today and tomorrow.

"This represents the fourteenth corporate partnership for the Maryland Cybersecurity Center," said Eric Chapman, associate director of MC2. "The growing cadre of corporate partners we have speaks to the diverse and high caliber of faculty we have engaged in meaningful cybersecurity research, as well as to the talented undergraduates we have here at UMD." Chapman noted that since September 2011, MC2 has added nine new corporate partnerships, demonstrating a "remarkable period of growth in the relationships it is has developed with external constituencies."

UMD researchers are applying their expertise in a number of critical cybersecurity fields, including, secure software, supply chain risk management, wireless and network security, attacker behavioral analysis, and the economics of cybersecurity. MC2 stresses comprehensive solutions to cybersecurity education, research, and technology development by bringing together experts from computer science, engineering, social sciences, economics and public policy to establish interdisciplinary cybersecurity initiatives.

"At Sourcefire, we recognize the importance of creating education programs that arm our community as well as our future cybersecurity leaders with the tools and research to protect their current and future environments," said Marc Solomon, chief marketing officer for Sourcefire. "UMD has a unique approach in this regard with its MC2 initiatives, and we are quite pleased to partner with them in this program."

Designed to deliver Agile SecurityTM, Sourcefires portfolio of intelligent cybersecurity solutions includes: the industrys most effective Next-Generation Intrusion Prevention System (NGIPS), delivering advanced threat protection with real-time contextual awareness and intelligent security automation and optional application control and URL filtering; the only Next-Generation Firewall (NGFW) to combine a NGIPS with integrated application control and firewall functionality in a universal high-performance appliance; the FireAMPTM enterprise-class advanced malware analysis and protection solution that uses big data to discover, understand and block advanced malware outbreaks; and FireAMP Mobile to protect against mobile malware.

About UMD
The University of Maryland ranks among the top 20 public research universities in the nation, and is the closest in proximity to the nation’s capital. As the state’s flagship university, UMD educates the most talented students from Maryland and beyond. For more information, visit, or to learn more about MC2, please visit

About Sourcefire
Sourcefire, Inc. , a world leader in intelligent cybersecurity solutions, is transforming the way global large- to mid-size organizations and government agencies manage and minimize network security risks. With solutions from a next-generation network security platform to advanced malware protection, Sourcefire provides customers with Agile Security" that is as dynamic as the real world it protects and the attackers against which it defends. Trusted for more than 10 years, Sourcefire has been consistently recognized for its innovation and industry leadership with numerous patents, world-class research, and award-winning technology. Today, the name Sourcefire has grown synonymous with innovation, security intelligence and agile end-to-end security protection. For more information about Sourcefire, please visit

Media Contacts:
Eric Chapman
Associate Director
Maryland Cybersecurity Center
301 405 7136

Jennifer Leggio
Vice President, Corporate Communications
Sourcefire, Inc.
650 260 4025

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